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Full text of "Time-of-travel study, Mohawk River Rome, New York to Cohoes, New York"

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STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


TIME-OF- TRA VEL STUDY 
MOHAWK RIVER 


ROME. NEW YORK TO COHOES, NEW YORK 


By 
HAROLD L. SH I NOEL 
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



TIME-OF-TRAVEL STUDY 
MOHAWK RIVER 


ROME, NEW YORK TO COHOES, NEW YORK 


by 


Harold L. Shindel 
U.S. Geological Survey 


REPORT OF INVESTIGATION 
RI-6 


Prepared by 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with 
NEW YORK STATE HEALTH DEPARTMENT 


STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


1969 




CONTENTS 


Page 


Summa ry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
I n trod u c t i on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
Description of the Mohawk basin............................... 3 
Description of discharge...................................... 3 
P rocedu res, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 
An a 1 y s is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 
Time of travel in the natural river sections.................. 14 
Time of travel in the river-canal sections.................... 14 
Time of travel in the power-pool sections..................... 16 
D i s c U 55 i on. . . , . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 


References and previous time-of-travel studies made in 
New York by the U.S. Geological Survey........ 25 
Appendix A. Graphs of time variation and dispersion of dye....... 27 
Appendix B. Cross sections and hydraulic properties.............. 45 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


Figure 1. Map showing study reach and location of the 
Mohawk Rive r bas in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


4 


2. Map showing location of sub reaches and 
s amp 1 i ng po i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


5 


3. Flow-duration curve of the Mohawk River near 


Lit t 1 e Fa 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


7 


4. Diagram of channel types on Mohawk River.............. 13 


5. Graph showing cumulative time of travel from 
Guard Gate No. 6 to Crescent Dam for observed 
high and low d i scha rges. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . . . 18 


Figures 6 to 14. Graphs showing relationship of discharge to 
time of travel on the Mohawk River: 


6. Guard Gate No.6 near Rome to Oriskany Road 
to Mohawk Street.................................... 19 


7. Mohawk Street to North-South Arterial to 
Leland Avenue, Utica................................ 19 


8. Leland Avenue Dam to Dyke Road to Suspension 
Bridge, and Frankfort to Herkimer................... 20 


i i i 



ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 


Page 


Figure 9. Herkimer to Lock 18 to Hansen Island to 
Lock 17 to Fivemile Dam............................ 20 


10. Fivemile Dam to Lock 16 to Lock 15 to 


Lock 14............................................ 21 


11. Lock 14 to Lock 13 to Fonda.......................... 21 


12. Fonda to Lock 12 to Lock II........................... 22 


13. Lock II to Lock 10 to Lock 9 to Lock 8............... 
14. Lock 8 to Route 50 to Vis c he r Fe r ry to 
Crescent Dam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


22 


23 


TABLES 


Table 1. Gaging stations, indicating drainage area, average 
flow, and regulation, on the Mohawk River and 
tributary streams.................................... 


6 


2. Study reaches showing channel type and length.......... 9 


3. Use and dispersion of the dye in the Mohawk River...... 10 


4. Gaging station descriptions............................ 11 


5. Miscellaneous discharge measurements of the Mohawk 
River and tributaries................................ 12 


6. Time-of-travel data.................................... 15 


iv 



TIME-OF-TRAVEL STUDY 
MOHAWK RIVER 


ROME, NEW YORK TO COHOES, NEW YORK 


By 
Harold L. Shindel 1/ 


SUMMARY 


Time of travel of water was determined for the 119. I-mile reach of the 
Mohawk River between Guard Gate No.6 near Rome, New York, and the Crescent 
Dam near Cohoes, New York. A 40-percent solution of Rhodamine B dye was 
used to trace the time of travel of water during a low-flow period (summer 
1966) and during a period of high flow (spring 1967). Because discharge is 
regulated by the operation of the Erie Barge Canal, there is no appreciable 
period of median flow on the canalized two-thirds of the study reach. The 
cumulative time of travel for all the subreaches of the study was 840 hours 
during low flows and 210 hours during high flows. Graphs are presented 
which show magnitude and frequency of discharge and the relationship 
between time of travel and discharge through the subreaches. 


In addition to discharge, time of travel is also controlled by the 
shape and use of the channel section. On the basis of shape and use, each 
of the subreaches was classified into one of three types of channel 
sections: (1) the natural river section, (2) the river-canal section, or 
(3) the power-pool section. The natural river sections include 39.1 mi les 
of the study reach and are characterized by relatively shallow cross 
sections and winding channels. The traveltime of water is least through 
these sections and does not fol1ow the same extreme fluctuations between 
high and low flow that are prevalent in the other types of sections. 


In the 58.9 miles of river-canal sections, the river channel has been 
straightened and dredged to accommodate canal traffic. These sections have 
thus become a series of pools separated by canal locks and dams. Time of 
travel through the pools is controlled by the two distinct periods of high 
and low flow that occur during the canal operating season: (1) during high 
flow the dam gates are opened more often and the time of travel is faster, 
and (2) during low flow the gates are closed more often and the time of 
t rave 1 i s s 1 owe r. 


1/ Hydrologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Albany, N. Y. 


- 1 - 



The 1ast 21.1 miles of the study reach consists of power-pool sections. 
These sections are the same as river-canal sections except that the 
operations of the hydroelectric powerplants produces the major influence on 
the time of travel. Flow through the power-pool sections is controlled by 
the amount of water available, by the capacity of the channel to act as a 
reservoir and to pond water, and by the schedule of power production. 
During low flow, water is ponded and saved for peak production hours 
causing the slowest time of travel in the study reach. During high flow, 
power is produced constantly and excess water passes through the section 
without entering the powerplants, thereby allowing a faster time of travel. 


- 2 - 



INTRODUCTION 


The streams of New York carry and dilute large quantities of municipal 
and industrial effluents. This report presents the results of a study of 
the speed at which a pollutant might travel on the Mohawk River between 
Rome and Cohoes. 


The report covers time-of-travel investigations made on the Mohawk 
River during the period June 1966 to August 1967 by the U.S. Geological 
Survey, Garald G. Parker, District Chief, in cooperation with the New York 
State Department of Health, Hollis S. Ingraham, M.D., Commissioner. Field 
assistance was provided by the New York State Department of Transportation, 
J. Burch McMorran, Commissioner. 


The time needed by a stream to move water and its accompanying 
pollutants from point to point is called the time of travel between those 
points. Time of travel may be measured by using floats, by analyzing 
average stream velocities at selected cross sections, and by tracking 
various chemicals. The method used in this report is a recently developed 
variation of the chemical tracking method that employs fluorescent-dye 
tracers and seems to provide the most reliable results. Briefly stated, 
the method requires that a fluorescent dye be dumped into a stream and 
periodic samples then be taken at some downstream point until the slug of 
dye has passed. The time necessary for the peak concentration of the dye 
to pass from the dump point to the sample point is the time of travel 
between those points. The fluorescent-dye method is explained more fully 
in the "Procedures" section of the report. 


Description of the Mohawk Basin 


As shown in figure 1, the headwaters of the Mohawk River lie in the 
region of West Leyden, New York, about 20 miles north of Rome, New York. 
From the headwaters the river flows south through the Delta Reservoir until 
it joins the Erie Barge Canal near Rome and begins its easterly flow. The 
study reach and the sampling sites are shown in greater detail in figure 2. 


The Mohawk River drains a total of about 3,460 square miles. Flow 
enters the Mohawk basin from the Black River basin through the Black River 
Canal and the Lansing Kill, which joins the Mohawk River near Hillside. 
Flow also enters the Mohawk basin from the Chenango River through Oriskany 
Creek feeder. There is flow into and out of the Mohawk basin from the 
Oswego River basin, but the main diversion of water is from Schoharie Creek 
through the Shandaken Tunnel for part of the New York City water supply. 


Description of Discharge 


The operation of the Erie Barge Canal is the major control of discharge. 
The canal season generally extends from April 1 to November 30. In the 
sections above Vi scher Ferry and Crescent Dam, power production, consistent 
with maintaining canal levels, is the major controlling factor. 


- 3 - 



t 


o 
1 


10 


20MILES 
I 


Figure l.--Study reach and location of the Mohawk River basin. 


The flow of the Mohawk River is gaged at three points. In downstream 
order, the first is the Mohawk River below Delta Dam near Rome; the second 
is the Mohawk River near Little Falls, 1,800 feet downstream from Fivemile 
Dam; and the third is the Mohawk River at Cohoes at the Niagara-Mohawk 
Corporation's School Street Powerplant, about 1 3/4 miles above where the 
Mohawk River joins the Hudson River. There are also seven gages on 
tributaries to the Mohawk. Table I lists the gages in downstream order, 
their drainage area, average flows, and means of regulation. 


The flow-duration curve is an excellent means of showing distribution 
of flows by their frequency of occurrence. The curve is a plot of flow 
against the percentage of time that the flow was equaled or exceeded. 
A 90-percent flow is a low flow, one that is equaled or exceeded 90 percent 
of the time. Conversely, 10-percent flow indicates a high flow, one that 
is equaled or exceeded only 10 percent of the time. In pollution studies, 


- 4 - 



Guard Gate No.6 


I 


North-South Arterial 


Leland Ave. 


Dyke Rd) 
SuspensIOn Bndge 


Hansen Island 
Lock No. 17 


Lock No. 16 


10 
I . 


o 
I 


10 MILES 
I 


Rotterdam Junction 


Lock No.9 


Schenectady 


Cohoes 


Figure 2.--Location of subreaches and sampling points. 


- 5 - 



the low-flow periods are the ones of interest because during these periods 
the stream has less water to ameliorate the effects of pollution. Generally, 
a 75-percent or higher duration indicates the 1ow-flow regime. In the study 
reach, the gaging station near Little Falls was used as the principal index 
of flow in conducting the dye studies. Figure 3 shows the flow-duration 
curve for this gage. The high-f1ow dye studies were conducted when the 
discharge at the Little Falls gage had a duration of approximately 30 per- 
cent. During the low-flow dye studies, the duration of flow ranged from 
70 to 99 percent. The 99-percent duration flow occurred only during very 
short periods and was the result of upstream regulation. 


Table 1.--Gaging stations, indicating drainage area, 
average flow, and regulation, on the 
Mohawk River and tributary streams 


Station 


Mohawk River below Delta Dam 
near Rome 


Drainage 
area 
(sq m i ) 
150 


N i nem i 'e F eede r 


West Canada Creek at Kast 
Bridge 


556 


Mohawk River near Little 
Fa 11 s 


1 ,348 


East Canada Creek at East 
Creek 


291 


Otsquago Creek at Fort Plain 


59.2 
236 


Schoharie Creek at 
Prattsville 


Fox Creek at West Berne 


73.0 
883 


Schoharie Creek at 
Burtonsvi lIe 


Mohawk River at Cohoes 


3,460 



 Unadjusted mean 


Average 
flow 
(cfs) 

 375 


Regu 1 at i on 


De1 ta Reservoi r 


Canal season only 



 1,285 


Hinkley Reservoir 


2,685 


642 


Niagara Mohawk Hydro Plant 


77.8 
449 


95.2 


Schoharie Reservoir (f1ow 
at Gilboa diverted to 
New York City) 



 5,600 


Niagara Mohawk Hydro Plant 


- 6 - 



50, 


o 
z 
o 

 10, 
(/) 
a: 
LlJ 
a... 
ti:i 5000 
LlJ 
l.L 


u 
cc 
::::> 
u 20 
z 


LlJ 
t9 

 100 
I 
U 
en 
o 5 


20. 


000 
000 j'... 
........ 
'" "- 
fVV\ 
............ ....... 
....... 
........ 
....."'- 
" 
...... 
" 
"- 
"'- 
00 ""'.... 
....... , 
" 
 
0 
..... 
-.... 
- --- 
00 - 
200 
10 


o 


0.01 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 


5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 


90 95 98 99 99.5 99.899.9 99.99 


PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN 


Figure 3.--Flow-duration curve of the Mohawk River near Little Falls. 


- 7 - 



PROCEDURES 


Prior to actual field operations, field and map reconnaissance was 
conducted to determine the prospective subreaches, length of subreaches, 
and division of responsibility for sampling. Length of subreach was 
determined from the largest scale U.S.G.S. map available. Table 2 lists 
each subreach and its length, and figure 2 shows the location. 


The field procedure consisted of injecting the dye at the upstream 
site and taking samples at scheduled times at the downstream sampling site. 
Although there are many dye tracers available for this type of study, a 
Rhodamine B 40-percent tracer was chosen. This tracer was chosen for its 
high detectability, economy, ease of handling and injection, and harmless- 
ness in the concentrations used. Before injecting, it was necessary to 
compute the volume of dye to be injected so the peak concentration at the 
downstream site would be less than 10 ppb (parts per billion) in accordance 
with the U.S. Geological Survey policy. The amount of dye to be injected 
was computed by the formula: 


Vd = CQT e 


where 


Vd is the amount of dye injected, in ounces 
Q is the discharge, in cubic feet per second 
Te is the estimated time of travel, in hours 
C is a constant. 


To assure a downstream concentration of less than 10 ppb a target concen- 
tration of 2 ppb was used. The final formula then became: 


Vd(oz) = 0.005 Q(cfs) Te(hrs) 


After the samples were taken, they were analyzed by fluorometer. The 
Turner Model I II Fluorometer used to analyze the sample concentration is 
basically an optical bridge which, by the use of a rotating prism, relates 
the fluorescence of a sample to a calibrated rear light path. The machine 
is calibrated with prepared standards, the dial reading varying linearly at 
low concentrations with the amount of fluorescence. The machine may be 
used with either a flow-through door or with individual sample curvettes. 
An individual sampling technique was used in the study. The samples were 
analyzed in the lab and the concentration noted. The time interval between 
injection and arrival of the peak concentration of dye was considered the 
time of travel. Table 3 shows the amount of dye used, the peak concentra- 
tions observed, and the duration of the dye cloud. 


The discharge was obtained from the streamflow records for the Mohawk 
River near Little Falls, West Canada Creek at Kast Bridge, and East Canada 
Creek at East Creek. Mean daily discharges for these stations are published 
in the U.S. Geological Survey basic-data report, "Water Resources Data for 
New York, Part 1. Surface Water Records." Table 4 gives an abstract of the 
description for these stations. 


Streamflow measurements were made at several ungaged sites where flow 
data were needed o Table 5 lists the results of these measurements. 
Measurements of discharge were also obtained at the Vischer Ferry and 
Crescent power stations. 


- 8 - 



Table 2.-- Study reaches showing channel type and length 


Reach 
Guard Gate #6 nr. Rome 
to Mohawk St., Whitesboro 


Mohawk St., Whitesboro to 
Leland Ave., Utica 


Leland Ave. Dam, Utica to 
Suspension Bridge, 
Frankfort 


Frankfort to Herkimer 


Herkimer Guard Gate # 5 
to Loc k 1 8 


Lock 18 to Hansen Island, 
Little Falls 


Hansen Island 
Little Falls to Lock 17 


Lock 17 to Fivemi1e Dam 


Fivemile Dam to Lock 16 


Lock 16 to Lock 15 


Lock 15 to Lock 14 


Lock 14 to Lock 13 


Lock 13 to Fonda 


Fonda to Lock 12 


Loc k 12 to Loc k 11 


Lock 11 to Lock 10 


Lock 10 to Lock 9 


Lock 9 to Lock 8 


Lock 8 to N.Y. Hwy. 50, 
Schenectady 


N.Y. Hwy. 50, Schenectady 
to Lock 7, Vischers Ferry 


Vischers Ferry 
to Crescent Dam 


Channel type 
River channel 


River channel mainly; toward 
Leland Ave., channel is deepened in 
order to form auxiliary canal for 
various Oi 1 Co. 


River channel with some large ponds 


River-canal channel 


River channel 


River-canal channel 


River channel 


River-canal channel 


River channel 


River-canal channel 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


Power pool; large overflow areas 


do. 


do. 


Mil ea ge 
10.3 


6.9 


11.0 


4.8 


4.6 


3.2 


1.1 


3.8 
4.4 


6.6 


3.5 
7.8 
4.6 


5. 1 


4.3 
4.3 


6.0 


4.9 
4. 1 


6.8 


10.2 


- 9 - 



Table 3.--Use and dispersion of the dye in the Mohawk River 


Reach 


Guard Gate 6 nr. Rome 
to Ori skany Rd., Ori skany 


to Mohawk St., 'Whitesboro 


Mohawk St., Whitesboro 
to North South Arterial, Utica 


to Le 1 and Ave., Uti ca 


Leland Ave Dam, Utica 
to Dyke Road, Schuyler 


to Suspension Bridge, Frankfort 


Frankfort to Herldmer 


Herki,.,er Guard Gate #5 to Lock 18 


Lock 18 to Hansen I stand, Li ttle Fall s 


Han se n 1 s 1 and, Li tt 1 e F a II s 
to Loc k 1 7 


to F i vemi Ie Dam 


Fivemi Ie Dam to Lock 16 


Lock 16 to Lod 15 


Lock 15 to Lock 14 


Lock 14 to Lock '3 


Lock 13 to Fonda 


Fonda to Lock 12 


Lock 12 to Lock 11 


Lock 11 to Lock 10 


Lock 10 to Lock 9 


Lock 9 to Lock 8 


Lock 8 


to Rt. 50 Bridge, Schenectady 


to Vi schers Ferry 


Vi schers Ferry to Crescent Dam 


Date 


6/13/66 
5/30/67 
8/10/67 
6/14/66 
5/30/67 
8/10/67 


6/13/66 
81 8/67 
6/1 5/66 
81 9/67 


6/15/66 
91 8/66 
8/15/67 
6/16/66 
91 8/66 
8/15/67 
6/26/66 
5/30/67 
6/20/66 
5/24/67 
8/17/67 
6/23166 
5/23/67 


6/22/66 
5/22/67 
6/22/66 
5/22/67 
71 7/66 
10/11/66 
5/11/67 
7/1\/66 
5/11/67 
7/1 1/66 
5/10/67 
7/12/66 
5/10/67 
81 1/66 
5/10/67 
81 2/66 
51 8/67 
7/26/66 
51 9/67 
7126166 
51 9/67 
7125/66 
5/18/67 
7/25/66 
5/18/67 


7/18/66 
51 8/67 
7/20/66 
51 8/67 
7/18/66 
51 8/67 


Discharge 
(cfs) 


263 
221 
1,200 


372 
394 
1,380 


705 
a/600 

/600 


1,360 
2,020 
980 


J,140 
2,450 


1,310 
3,140 
1,390 
3,460 
1,840 
2,000 
4,660 


1,200 
5,450 


1,200 
5,450 


1,200 
5,450 
803 
!,/8,000 


631 
7,020 


974 
10,000 


974 
I 0,000 


968 
7,930 
968 
7,930 


a/I,500 
- 7,250 


a/940 
7,250 
all .000 
- 8,060 


Amoun t 
of 
dye 
(oz)W 


438 
491 
695 
449 


257 
96 
64 


758 
561 
580 
879 
742 


257 
96 
64 


272 
128 
48 
32 
48 


208 
96 


448 
160 


448 
160 


144 
48 
64 


480 
256 
480 
144 


708 
288 
256 
240 


320 
256 
320 
216 


320 
216 
640 
160 


1,536 
1,024 


1,536 
1,024 


2, 304 
1,024 


al - abou to 
W - to cOlllpute -..nt of dye injected In .,,\1 liters. IlUltlply by 29.57. 
sf - s_ .s mIcrograms per liter. 


- 10 - 


Peak 
concen t rat ion 
(ppb )sf 


87 
96 
64 
87 
96 
64 


20.2 
a/l6 
- 2.9 
7.6 
11.4 
2.0 


145 
48 
56 
48 


37.4 
!.II 0 


11.9 
5.5 


31 
17.1 
6.0 


19.5 
10.0 
3.8 
4.4 
1.7 
7.6 
a/4.0 
- 4.5 


4.0 
4.4 


70.8 
12.9 
9.2 
4.2 
14.0 
10.8 
3.4 
3.7 
3.3 
3.7 
1.6 
3.8 
2.8 
1.5 
2.6 
2.4 
!,/5.0 
2.1 
2.6 


2.9 
.4 


2.7 
1.1 


576 
128 


3.4 
1.6 


17.8 
4.6 


4.2 


Duration 
of 
dye 
cloud 
(hrs) 


11.4 
al10 
- 5.5 
7.6 
6.5 
6.0 


7.4 
5.5 
4.5 
8.0 


6.6 
13.6 
9.5 
8.0 
16.0 
14.0 


28.5 
18 


7.5 
3.5 
6.5 
18 
4.5 


7.5 
2.4 


21.0 
7.5 
4.1 
3.0 
1.1 


a/57 
- 9.5 


a/57 
- 6.0 


140 
17.0 
75 
3.5 


a/45 
- 3.0 
55 
12.0 


42 
4.5 


50 
1\ .0 


96 
8.0 


1.3 
1.4 


32 
5.0 
147 
!,/20 
160+ 
22.0 



Table 4.-- Gaging station descriptions 


1-3460. West Canada Creek at Kast Bridge, N. Y. 


Location.--Lat 43°04'15", 10ng 74°59'25", on 1eft bank 600 feet 
downstream from bridge on State Highway 28 at Kast Bridge Station 
on New York Centra1 Rai1road, Herkimer County, 4 miles upstream 
from mouth near Herkimer. 


Drainage area.--556 sq mi. 


Gage.--Water-stage recorder (digital). Datum of gage is 438.99 ft 
above mean sea leve1. 


Remarks.--F1ow partly regu1ated by Hinck1ey Reservoir, 31 mi1es above 
station. Diurnal fluctuation at 10w and median flow caused by power 
plants above station. Diversion at Trenton Fa1ls, 26 mi1es above 
station by Ninemile feeder during canal navigation season. Diversion 
from Hinck1ey Reservoir for Utica water supp1y returned to Mohawk 
Rive r. 


1-3470. Mohawk River near Little Fal1s, N. Y. 


Location.--Lat 43°00'50", long 74°/+6 1 40", on 1eft hank 1,800 feet 
downstream from Rocky Rift (Fivemite) Dam, 2 mi1es upstream from 
East Canada Creek. 


Drainage area.--1 ,348 sq mi. 


Gage.--Water-stage recorder (digita1). Datum of gage is 310.0 ft above 
mean sea 1evel (Barge Cana1 datum). 


Remarks.--During cana1 navigation season, water is received from Black 
River basin through Black River Canal flowing south, and Lansing Ki11, 
and from Chenango River basin through Oriskany Creek feeder. Water 
is diverted into (or may occasiona11y be received from) Oswego River 
basin through summit 1eve1 of Erie (Barge) Canal between New London 
and Utica. Diurna1 f1uctuation caused by power plants and 10cks and 
dams on Erie (Barge) Cana1. Appreciab1e regulation by Delta and 
Hinck1ey Reservoirs (combined usable capacity 6,120,000,000 cu ft). 


1-3480. East Canada Creek at East Creek, N. Y. 


Locat i on. --Lat 43° 01' 0011, long 74° 44'30", on ri ght bank at vi 11 age of 
East Creek, Herkimer County, a quarter of a mi1e downstream from 
Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Beardslee power plant, 1 1/4 mi1es upstream 
from mouth. 


Drainage area.--291 sq mi. 


Gage.--Water-stage recorder (digita1). Datum of gage is 335.70 ft 
above mean sea level. 


Remarks.--Extensive diurnal fluctuation and slight regu1ation caused by 
power plants above station. City of Litt1e Falls diverts about 
5 cfs for municipa1 supp1y. 


- 11 - 



Table 5.--Miscellaneous discharge measurements of the 
Mohawk River and tributaries 


Date 
6/13/66 
6/14/66 
9/ 7/66 
5/30/67 
8/10/67 
5/ 5/66 
Do. 
6/14/66 


5/31/67 
6113/66 
6/14/66 
9/ 7/66 
5/29/67 
5/30/67 
8/10/67 
8/11/67 
5/ 5/66 
Do. 
6/13/66 
6/14/66 
6/15/66 
8/ 8/67 
6/15/66 
9/ 7/66 
9/ 7/66 
8/ 9/67 
6/16/66 
9/ 8/6f 
8/15/67 


6/16/66 
9/ 8/66 
8/16/67 
6/20/66 
5/24/67 
5/30/67 


6/20/66 
)/24/66 
6/2 1/66 
6/23/66 
5/23/67 
8/ I 7/E 7 


6/22/66 
5/22/67 
7/11/66 
5/ 6/66 
Do. 
Do. 


7/ II /66 
511 0/67 
81 1/66 
8/ 2/66 
5/ 8/67 
5/19/66 
5119/66 
5/19/66 
7/27/66 
7/27/66 
5/ 9/67 
7/25/66 
5/18/67 
7/ I 8/66 
7/20/66 
5/ 8/67 


Site 
Mohawl-- Ri ver at Canal Gate 6 near Rome 


Mohawl-- River at Orisl--any Rd. nr. Orisl--any 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Ori skany Creel-- at Ori sl--any 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- Ri ver at 12C Bridge nr. Whi tesboro 


Mohawl-- River at Mohawk St., nr. Whitesborc 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Sauquoi t Creel-- at Whi tesboro 
do. 
do. 


Mohawk River at N.S. Arterial, Utica 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at Leland Ave., Utica 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at Schuyler (Dyke Rd.) 
do. 
do. 


Mohawk River nr. Frankfort (Susp. Br.) 
do. 
do. 


Mohawk River at Frankfort 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at Washington St., Herkimer 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at Lock 18 near Herkimer 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at S. Ann St., Little Falls 
do. 


Caroga Creek at Palentine Church 


Canajoharie Creel-- at Canajoharie 
do. 
do. 


Mohawl-- River at Ft. Plain 
do. 


Mohawl-- Rive rat Fonda 
do. 
do. 


N. Chuctanunda Creek at Amsterdam 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Mohawk River at Amsterdam 
do. 


Mohawk River at Rotterdam Junction 
do. 


Mohawk Rive rat R t. 50 Br i dge, Schenectady 
do. 
do. 


- 12 - 


o i scha rge 
ref s) 
67.2 
263 
358 
221 
1,200 


205 
206 
130 
308 


370 
372 
422 
238 
394 
2,010 
848 


91.2 
87.5 
55.7 
438 
705 
491 
695 
313 
374 
449 
705 
578 
673 
758 
578 
478 
879 
740 
742 


498 
769 


1,160 
1,140 
2,450 
980 


1,310 
3,140 


162 


44.6 
48.9 
55.2 


1,200 
5,450 


803 
631 
7,020 


101 
132 
175 
14.4 


974 
10,000 


968 
7,930 


1,120 
1,880 
6,620 



ANALYSIS 


Time of travel varies considerably in the study reach with changes in 
discharge, channel cross section, and channel use. The major controlling 
factor in most of the reach is the operation of the Erie Barge Canal. In 
the easternmost part of the study reach, from just above Vischer Ferry to 
the Crescent Dam, hydroelectric power production plays an important role 
in controlling the time of travel. All these variables and controls 
combine to produce three basic channel types: the natural river section, 
the river-canal section, and the power-pool section. Figure 4 shows a 
schematic diagram of the three types of channel encountered. 


LOCK 


RIVER-CANAL CHANNEL 


CANAL 


LOCK 


RIVER-CANAL CHANNEL 


LOCK 


- DAM WITH TAINTOR GATES 


RIVER-CANAL CHANNEL 


LOCK 


DAM WITH TAINTOR GATES 


POWER POOL SECTION 


POWER STATION 


Figure 4.--Channel types of Mohawk River. 
Arrows show major flow path. 


- 13 - 



Time of Travel in the Natural River Sections 


The natural river sections are used mainly as overflow channels into 
which the excess flow in the canal is diverted. Once diverted, the water 
flows independently of the canal until it re-enters the canal system in 
the combined river-canal section. In comparison with the other sections, 
the natural river sections can be characterized as having the shallowest 
depths, and the most sinuous channels. Partly because of the first factor, 
time of travel in the natural river sections is less than that for the 
other sections, especially during periods of low discharge. 


Because the natural river sections do not have, to such a great 
extent, the two distinct flow patterns of the canalized sections, but 
rather have a more distributed flow regime, it was possible to estimate 
the relationship of time of travel to discharge. These relationships are 
shown in figures 6 to 14 based on the data in table 6. The time variation 
in dye-concentration curves is shown in appendix A. 


Except for the Leland Avenue section, the flow in the natural river 
channel is generally not affected by in-channel regulation from such things 
as gates, dams, and locks. There are, however, regulatory influences 
produced by the feeder and tributary inflow to the natural river channel. 


Feeder canals cause fluctuation in the headwaters of the natural river 
sections. The subreach from Guard Gate No.6 near Rome to Mohawk Street, 
Whitesboro, is supplied by Ninemile Feeder through Ninemile Creek. Strong 
diurnal fluctuations are caused in the Herkimer to Lock 18 subreach by West 
Canada Creek, and the Fivemile Dam to Lock 16 subreach is affected by East 
Canada Creek. Bo
h East and West Canada Creeks are highly regulated by 
hydroelectric power stations during mid- and low-flow periods. 


Time of Travel in the River-Canal Sections 


In the river-canal sections the river channel has been modified by 
means of straightening and dredging to accommodate canal traffic. The 
channel then becomes a series of pools separated by locks. The flow is 
controlled by Taintor gates which act as dams at the locks. When high 
flows occur, the excess water is passed downstream through the opened 
gates. After the high flow has passed, the gates are closed to maintain 
the canal level. There are two distinct flow patterns during the canal- 
operating season: the high flow and low flow. The high-flow period, which 
usually occurs around the middle of May, has a short time of travel because 
of the necessity of lowering the canal pools by frequently opening the 
Taintor gates. The low-flow period which comprises the summer season is 
characterized by closed gates and an extended time of travel. Runs were 
made only during high- or low-flow periods, there being no significant 
periods of median flows. The low-flow run was made in the summer of 1966 
and the high flow in the spring of 1967. 


The results of the two runs are given in table 6. The increased 
velocity noted during periods of high discharge are caused in the river- 
canal sections by two factors, the increased discharges, and the opening 


- 14 - 



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of the gates and dams to expedite the passage of the water. The relationship 
of time of travel to discharge for the canal sections is also shown in 
figures 6 to 14; these graphs can be used to determine time of travel for 
flow rates different from those observed during this study. 


Time of Travel in the Power-Pool Sections 


The river in these sections could also be considered a river-canal 
section but hydroelectric power stations produce the major influence on the 
time of travel. This study included the power-pool subreaches above the 
Vischer Ferry station and above the Crescent power station. In these 
reaches the flow of water depends on (1) the water available, (2) the 
capacity of pond, and (3) the scheduling of power needs. During low flows, 
water is ponded and saved for peak production hours, thereby causing lengthy 
times of travel. During low flow, the periods of ponding generally occur at 
night and are so arranged as to be able to produce power Monday through 
Friday for the 10 daylight hours. During high flows, power is produced 
constantly and excess water is passed through gates without even entering 
the power stations; this causes brief times of travel. As with the river- 
canal sections, runs were attempted only at periods of high and low flows. 


The length of time the dye cloud persisted before being carried away 
by the streamflow was different for high and low flows. The average time 
during a period of low flow was 77 hours, while that during a high-flow 
period was 10 hours. Various curves illustrating the time variation in dye 
concentrations are given in appendix A. Appendix B shows cross sections 
measured during the study. 


- 16 - 



DISCUSSION 


Under ideal conditions, time-of-travel studies should be made at three 
well-distributed discharges as defined by a flow-duration curve. This is 
necessary to properly define the relationship of time of travel to discharge. 
The low discharge under ideal conditions would be at approximately the 
99-percent duration. 


The only long-term station on the Mohawk River within the study reach 
is liThe Mohawk River near Little Falls"; the flow-duration curve is shown 
in figure 3 and the station described in table 4. This station record shows 
that during the period of study a sustained low flow of 99-percent duration 
is not available. Brief periods of this low flow were reached, but only 
for short time periods as caused by regulation over Sunday night and Monday 
mornings. 


Because of regulation, such well-distributed flows do not occur in the 
river-canal section. The flow duration was estimated to be the same as was 
found at Little Falls during the same time period (approximately 30 percent 
for the high flows, 85 percent for the low flows, with variations throughout 
the pe r i od ) . 


The same procedure must be fo11owed in estimating the f1O\'i duration in 
the river-channel sections. This is much more difficult because of the 
tendency toward erratic high flows in the headwaters and because of regula- 
tion of the tributaries above the station. The ranges of flow duration 
during the periods of study for the river reaches were as follows: 


Guard Gate No.6 to Mohawk St., 24 to 72 percent; 
Mohawk St. to Leland Ave., 55 to 72 percent; 
Leland Ave. Dam to Suspension Bridge, 44 to 70 percent; 
Herkimer to Lock 18, 40 to 78 percent; 
Hansen Island to Lock 17, 24 to 64 percent; and 
Fivemile Dam to Lock 16, 26 to 82 percent. 


To demonstrate the variation in time of travel encountered during the 
study, figure 5 shows the maximum and minimum cumulative times found from 
Guard Gate No.6 near Rome to Crescent Dam near Cohoes. The maximum 
cumulative time of travel is of special interest in regards to pollutant 
studies because it occurs during low-discharge periods. 


Using the relationships established in this report it is possible to 
estimate the time of travel, given the discharge, for any of the subreaches 
covered in this report. 


- 17 - 



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HIGH DISCHARGE 
PER 100 


30 40 50 60 70 80 90 
MILES DOWNSTREAM FROM GUt.RD GATE NO.6 NEAR ROME 


120 


Figure 5.--Cumulative time of travel from Guard Gate No.6 to Crescent Dam 
for observed high and 10w discharges. 


- 18 - 



3000 


I 
\""d Gote No.6 
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\ 
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Figure 6.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Guard Gate No.6 near Rome 
to Oriskany Road to Mohawk Street). 


2000 


,.., 
 

 
0 North-So
th AJtenal1 I _ Mohawk St. to 
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TIME, IN HOURS 


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Figure 7.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Mohawk Street to North-South 
Arterial to Leland Avenue, Utica). 


- 19 - 



o 
z 
o 
u 
UJ 
(/) 
cc 
UJ 
a... 
f- 
UJ 
UJ 
LL 
U 
CC 
=> 
U 
Z 


'I
 I 

 T 0
 Frankfortt0t--_ 

 I a I ""k,m" 
0
 '
- 
I 0 00 T I I 
Le"od Ave. O,m 
=st ° k Rd 
to Dyke Rd. Susp
n
ion' B

dge 


1000 


500 


UJ' 
(9 
cc 
« 
I 
U 
(/) 
o 


100 
I 


50 


100 


5 


10 
TIME, IN HOURS 


Figure 8.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Leland Avenue Dam to Dyke Road 
to Suspension Bridge, and Frankfort to Herkimer). 


5000 


o 
z 
o 
u 
UJ 
(/) 
cc 
UJ 
a... 
f- 
UJ 
UJ 
LL 

 
cc 
=> 
U 
Z 


- 1+ 
'0 
'" 'i\: :\. '" Lock No. 17 
\ \ 'HI Ga 
Hansen Island 
to Lock No. 17 ',\ "e,k;
, '0 
 
 
,<OCkNO.'8 

:. 
'\ I I Lock No. 1 8 
to Hansen Island 
I I 


u.i 

 1000 
« 
I 
U 
(/) 
o 


500 
0.7 


5 10 
TIME, IN HOURS 


50 


Figure 9.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Herkimer to Lock 18 to 
Hansen Island to Lock 17 to Fivemile Dam). 


- 20 - 



10,00 



 
\--\ 
0 \ \
 

 
ff 
 L,"'N016 
I I. 
 ,,, ,,,,, No." 
I 1°'0 '\ 
C,"em,le 0,,", lillJ I 
to Lock No. 16 
Lllck Nil. 15 I'_ 
D " Leek No 14 o
_

 

- - 
0 


5 10 
TIME, IN HOURS 


50 


o 
Z 500 
o 
u 
w 
(fJ 
a: 
w 
D..- 
r- 
w 
w 
LL 
U 
CD 
:J 
U 
Z 


w' 
19 
a: 
« 
I 
U 
(fJ 
o 100 


50 


Figure 10.--Relationship of discharge to tiltle of travel 
on the Mohawk River (from Fivemile Dam 
to Lock 16 to Lock 15 to Lock 14). 


10,000 


T 
,I 
L "'
 

o i 
! 1 
I 
I I 
 
I 
I 
I I 
i 

 
I I I 
I I L''',"' 13 
 '" 
I 
I to Fonda 
I ,_ 
0
 
\. _ Lock No. 14 

 
 No 13 
0* 


0 
Z 5000 
0 
u 
w 
(fJ 
a: 
w 
D..- 
r- 
w 
w 
LL 
U 
CD 
:J 
U 

 
W 
19 
a: 
« 
I 
u 
(fJ 
0 1000 


500 
5 


10 


50 
TIME. IN HOURS 


100 


200 


400 


Figure 11.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Lock 14 to Lock 13 to Fonda). 


- 21 - 



10,000 


;"\. I 
\. 
\
 

 
.\ 
I 
Lock No. 12 

 

 
I , 
Fonda to _0" 
Lo(t No. 1 1 2 -I' 


10 


50 


100 


o 
z 5000 
o 
u 
UJ 
(/) 
cr. 
UJ 
a.. 
f- 
UJ 
UJ 
LL 
U 
cc 
:J 
U 
Z 


UJ' 
(9 
cr. 
4: 
I 
U 
(/) 
o 1000 


500 
5 


TIME, IN HOURS 


Figure 12.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Fonda to Lock 12 to Lock 11). 


10,000 


500 


"', I I I 
- 

0X 

f: 
 

 

 
Lock No1 
 Look 
o. '0 
to Lock No.1 0_ - 0- to Lock No 9 
o 
 
 I . 

J 
-
 
Lock No. 9 _ 
"
 Lock No. 8 


10 


50 
TIME, IN HOURS 


100 


200 


5000 


o 
z 
o 
u 
UJ 
(/) 
cr. 
UJ 
a.. 
f- 
UJ 
UJ 
LL 
U 
cc 
:J 
U 
Z 


UJ' 
(9 
cr. 
4: 1000 
I 
U 
(/) 
o 


300 
5 


Figure 13.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel 
on the Mohawk River (from Lock 11 to 
Lock 10 to Lock 9 to Lock 8). 


- 22 - 



10,000 


-\ \._'0 
- (!) "d:s 
-- 
- - \ 
:\ 
 
\ 
* 
\. 
\ 
\
 
 
, _I-- Vischer Ferry 
K:D'''' 
\ 
Lock No. 8 "
 
I to Rte. 50 
I 

 0 
o 
 
I=R 
I 
Rte. 50 to 

 I scte
 Ferry 


o 
6 5000 
u 
w 
(f) 
a: 
w 
0.... 
I- 
w 
W 
LL 
U 
QJ 
::J 
U 
Z 


w 
(9 
a: 
<t: 
I 
U 
(f) 
o 1000 


500 
5 


10 


50 
TIME, IN HOURS 


100 


400 


Figure 14.--Relationship of discharge to time of travel on the 
Mohawk River (from Lock 8 to Route 50 to 
Vischer Ferry to Crescent Dam). 


- 23 - 




REFERENCES AND PREVIOUS TIME-OF-TRAVEL STUDIES 
MADE IN NEW YORK BY THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


Ayer, G. R., 1964, Float studies and temperature observations, Cumberland 
Bay area on Lake Champlain, Plattsburg, New York: U.S. Geol. Survey 
open-file rept., p. 6-23. 


Dunn, Bernard, 1964, Hydrology of the Irondequoit Creek basin, Rochester, 
New York: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file rept., p. 22-29. 


, 1964, Time-of-travel studies, Fall Creek basin, Tompkins 
County, N. Y.: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file rept., 25 p. 


, 1965, Time-of-travel studies, Hoosic River, North Adams, Mass., 
to Hoosic Falls, N. Y.: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file rept. No. TT-I, 
17 p., with 7 p. addendum. 


, 1966, Time-of-travel studies, Lake Erie-Niagara River basins: 
U.S. Geol. Survey open-file rept. No. TT-2, 108 p. 


, 1966, Time-of-trQvel studies, Genesee River basin: U.S. Geol. 
Survey open-file rept. No. TT-3, 6S p. 


, 1966, Time-of-travel studies, Susquehanna River, Binghamton, N. Y. 
to Athens, Pa: U. S. Geol. Survey open-fi le rept. No. TT-4, 18 p. 


Mack, F. K., Pauszek, F. H., and Crippen, J. R., 1964, Geology and hydrology 
of the West Milton area, Saratoga County, New York: U.S. Geol. Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 1747, p. 72, 73. 


Simpson, E. S., Beetem, W. A., Ruggles, F. H., Jr., and others, 1959, 
Hydrologic and tracer studies in Mohawk 
iver at Knolls Atomic Power 
Laboratory: U.S. Atomic Energy Camm. 
esearch and Devel. Rept. so-4S, 
issued by Office of Tech. Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 
\
ashington, D. C., p. 91-197. 


Turner, C. K. Associates, 1963, Operating and service manual, model III 
fluorometer: Palo Alto, Calif., 28 p. 


Wilson, J. F., Jr., 1968, Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing: 
U.S. Geol. Survey Techniques Water-Resources Inv., book 3, chap. A12, 
31 p. 


- 25 - 




30 


Dye Injected at Guard Gate No.6 
June 13, 1966 1245 hours 


z 
o 
j 20 
CiS 
a: 
w 
"- 
CfJ 
I- 
a: 
;;: 

 15 
z 
g 
I- 

 
I- 
iD 
u 
6 10 
U 


o 
'\ 
, \ 
, \ 
I \ 
I \ 
I \ On ska ny Road 
I \ 
I%:::\ 
r 
I\) 
L
 
° 

 

 
 MOhaWk Street 
o
 O 
 /O 0 
0, ; 1 00 

: I


I 
I o ';'---! I 

 
1000 1200 1400 1600 0 1800 
JUNE 14 1966 


25 


20 
z 
g 
---' 
---' 
CiS 
a: 
w 
"- 

 
;;: 

 10 
z' 
g 
I- 

 
iD 
u 
z 
0 
u 


Dye Injected at Guard Gate No 6 
May 29, 1967 1200 hours 


o
 Mohawk Street 
7-\ 
o 0 

 'b, 
o D.o 
7 '
 
"- 
o 


1600 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 27 - 



z 

 
co 
a: 
lJ.J 
"- 

 2 
;;: 

 
Z 
o 
f- 

 I 
f- 
iE 
u 
z 
o 
u 


z 
g 
j 30 
co 
a: 
lJ.J 
"- 
CfJ 
f- 
a: 
;;: 



 20 


z 
o 
;::: 

 
f- 
iE 
u 
6 10 
U 


0 1800 


0600 


I 
0-0 


40 


Dye Injected at Mohawk Street, Whltesboro 

J""" 13,1966 1920 ho"" 
f 00 
° \ 
k 
o 0\ 

"hS""'" A""", u

, I 
LJ 
 9 
o 0-<' / , , 
0400 0600 


J 


0800 
JUNE 14. 1966 


1000 


1200 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 28 - 



z 
o 
:J 
co 
a: 
lJ.J 

 10 
t;: 

 

 
z' 
o 
i= 
;i 
f- 
iE 
u 
z 
o 
u 


z 
Q 
:::J 8 
co 
a: 
lJ.J 
"- 
CfJ 
f- 
a: 

 

 6 
Z' 
Q 
f- 

 
ib 
u 
z 
o 
u 


15 


l 
v o 
)0 
00-0 
1600 1700 


I 


o 


- 


- 


- 


e- 


- 


/9 
o --Lo I 
1800 


2000 2200 
AUGUST 8. 1967 


I 
I 


Leland Avenue 


Dye Injected at North-South Arterial. Utica 
June 15. 1966 1130 hours 


o 

 0 
o
 
O,,-+-- 
o 


1800 


I 


T 


1900 
JUNE 15, 1966 


I 


0200 


2000 


2200 


North-South Arten a I 


/1 
o 


I 


o 
\ 
o
 
o 
, h, 
2400 


2100 


I 


I 


I 


I 


T I I 
Dye Injected at Mohawk Street, Whltesboro 
August 8.1967 1200 hours 


- 


- 


- 


I 


R Leland Avenue 
1 00 
0\ 

-\ 
J \ 
o 
 
/0 
" 
J/.!.. I I I '-., n 


1200 


- 


- 


- 


0400 0600 0800 
AUGUST 9. 1967 


1000 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 29 - 



OJ 
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- 31 


o 
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2.0 


z 
3 
a; 
a: 
w 
CL 
(/) 
f- 
a: 
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z. 
a 
i= 
;i 
f- 
iE 

 0.5 
a 
u 


Herkimer Dye Injected at Frankfort 
/o 
 o May 30.1967 2000 hours 
0-0 0-0-0 
o 
o 0, 
o 0" 
0, 


1.5 


o 


o 


1.0 


0--0 


o 


, 
, 
, 
, 
, 
, 
, 


0200 


0400 


0600 
JUNE 1. 1967 


0800 


1000 


1200 


z 
a 
j 
a; 

 

 
a: 
;t 

 4 
Z 
Q 
f- 
;i 
f- 
iE 

 2 
a 
u 


2400 


Lock No. 18 


Dye injected at Herkimer 
June 20,19661315 hours 


co 
1600 


- 
2300 


4 


z 
3 
a; 
a: 
w 
CL 
(/) 

 
;t 

 2 
z' 
Q 
f- 

 
iE 
u 
z 
a 
u 


1900 


MAY 24. 1967 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 32 



Dye Injected at Herkimer 
August 17 19670900 hours 


4 
z 
Q 
--' 
--' 
co 
a: 
lJ.J 
"- 
(j) 
tr: 

 

 
z 
Q 
f- 0 

 
f- 
35 
u 
z 
0 
u 


z 
Q 
--' 
--' 
co 

 4 
(j) 
f- 
a: 

 

 


z 
o 

 2 
35 
u 0 
z 
o 
u 


2200 


1600 


1700 


IBOO 1900 
AUGUST 17, 1967 


2000 


2100 


o 


Hansen Island 


Dye In lected at Lock No 18 
June 23 1966 1115 hours 


o 


o 


o 


o 
o - o
 
o 0-0-""""0 
o 


o 
2000 


o 


2400 


0200 


0400 


0600 


0800 


1000 


1200 


1400 


2200 
JUNE 23 1966 


JUNE 24 1966 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 33 



OJ 

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2
 


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- 34 - 


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- 19 - 
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14 1 I I I 
I- Lock No. 17 

 
12 0 
\ 
z I- 
 
0 
j 
a; 10 
a:: 
UJ 
a.. 
(f) 0 

 
;:;: 



 8 


z' 
o 
i= 
;? 
f- 
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U 
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o 
u 


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g 
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a; 
a:: 
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;:;: 

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Z 
o 
i= 
;? 
f- 
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6 4 
U 


z 
o 


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a; 
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a.. 8 
(f) 

 
;:;: 

 
z 
o 

 4 
f- 
Z 
UJ 
U 
Z 
o 
U 


I 


T I 1 II 
Dye Injected at Hansen Island. Little Falls _ 
May 22. 1967 1430 hours 


- 


- 


o 


\ 
00\ 

 / O__\ 
, c;\ 
0-00 00 
1400 1600 


- 


- 


- 


Flvemi Ie Dam 


4 


r
 
o_a_/ 
 I I ' >'t' O- I- =-O 
 


- 


1 


1800 2000 
MAY 22.1967 


2200 


2400 


0200 0400 
MAY 23. 1967 


0600 


16 


Dye Injected at Flvemile Dam 
July 7. 1966 1230 hours 


Lock No. 16 




 
/0 
1 
o 
I 
I 


O
 

 
<?---o 


o 
1700 


o 
2/00 


1800 


1900 
JULY 7.1966 


2000 


12 


/
 Lock No 16 
)( 
 
1+ 0"0 
/0 '--1---1 
00 
1700 


Dye Injected at Flvemlle Dam 
October 11. 1966 1300 hours 


2000 


1800 


1900 


OCTOBER 11. 1966 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 35 - 



2 

 
a; 
a:: 
LlJ 
(L 
Cf) 
f- 
a:: 
;t 

 
2 
o 
i= 

 
f- 
as 
U 
2 
o 
U 


4 


Dye Injected at Flvemile Dam 
May 11, 1967 1325 hours 


Lock No. 16 


2 

 
a; 
a:: 
LlJ 
(L 
Cf) 

 
;t 

 
2' 
o 
i= 
g 
as 
u 
8 o'o_o_o_o Jj I
 o 


1500 


1600 
MAY 11. 1967 


1700 


4 


0........... Lock No. 15 Dye Injected at Lock No. 16 
if 0'0 July 11, 1966 1315 hours 
o 0 
U 
00 1 0 0 o
 
o 0 O
 
il o -r
o 
o 
/ 
,0 
00/ 
1400 


2 
o 
j 3 
a; 
a:: 
LlJ 
(L 
Cf) 

 
;t 

 
2 
9 
f- 

 
f- 
as 
u 
21 
o 
U 


1800 2200 
JULY 12,1966 


0200 


0600 


1000 
JULY 13, 1966 


/400 


1800 


4 


Lock No. 15 


Dye injected at Lock No. 16 
May. 11, 1967 1115 hours 


o 
2000 


b L O 
2200 
MAY 11, 1967 


\
 
0__ 
0_0
b.._0 
0600 0800 


2400 


0200 


0400 
MAY 12, 1967 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 36 



z 
o 
:J 
c:; 
a:: 
w 
CL 
Cf) 

 
'it 

 
z 
o 

 I 
f- 
6S 
u 
z 
o 
u 



 o Lock No. 14 
I 0 
000 0 00 
0'i-... 
0........... 
O
 
-- 
-- 
-- 
r --- 
-- 
-- 
I ............. I ........
 
1800 


2400 


1200 
JULY 13.1966 


1800 
JULY 12, 1966 


2400 


0600 


2.0 


Lock No. 14 


Dye Injected at Lock No. 15 
z May 10.1967 1400 hours 
o 
:J 1.5 
c:; 
a:: 
w 
CL 
Cf) 

 
'it 

 1.0 
Z 
o 
;::: 

 
f- 
6S 
u 
6 0.5 
u 


z 
Q 
-' 
-' 
c:; 
a:: 
w 
CL 
Cf) 

 
'it 0 

 2 


z 
o 
;::: 

 
f- 
6S 

 I 
o 
U 


00 
1800 


o 
2400 


1900 


2000 


2100 
MAY 10. 1967 


2200 


2300 


4 


o 


o 
I o
 0 0 
00 00 oil 0 
o 
o / 
o CXDOO 
o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 
I 


o 
 
0____ 
o 


oJ 
00/ 
2400 


1200 
JULY 16. 1966 


1200 2400 
JULY 17. 1966 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 37 - 



o 
1800 
AUGUST 2 1966 


z /'" I Lock No 13 
g 
...J 
...J 
iii 
a: I 
w 
[L 0 

 2 /-r 

 

 
Z 
g 0 
I- 
 

 I 
I- 
as 
U 
Z 
0 
U 
0 ,/ 
0 
0200 0400 0600 0800 


Dye Injected at Lock No 14 
May 10, 1967 1445 hours 


I 
o 


I 
o 
t 


o 


1400 


o
o__ 
0__ 
O
O 
1600 1800 2000 


1000 1200 
MAY 11, 1967 


z 
o 
j 
iii 
a: 
w 
[L 
Cf) 
t;: 

 

 
z 
g 
1- 1 

 0 
I- 
as 
U 
z 
o 
u 


I I 
-- I ===i----
-t 
I ' Fonda I 
OOo"°OOOO
O 
0-' \ 
T J O }o. 
! 
"- 0 0 0 
, I 
 O -o 
0600 1800 0600 


9 


0---:0-.. 


0600 1800 
AUGUST 5, 1966 


AUGUST 3, 1966 


AUGUST 4, 1966 


3 


z 

 
iii 
a: 
w 
[L 
Cf) 
I- 
a: 

 

 
Z 
o 
i= 

o'/' 
1800 


Dye Injected at Loc k No 13 
May 10 1967 1100 hours 


MAY 10 1967 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 38 - 



z 
3 
a; 

 

 2 
'it 

 
z 
o 
f= 
;1 I 
f- 
6J 
u 
z 
o 
u 


Lock No 12 
o 
if ';;;x,
0 ..". 
l- 
V 
o 
/ 
O
O 
0600 1200 1800 
AUGUST 4 1966 


o 


1' 0 

 
..... 
, 
, 
" 
, 
'..... 
.... 
.... 
.... 
'........ 
.........- 


o 


o 


o 


o 
2400 


2400 


0600 


1200 


AUGUST 5, 1966 


Lock No 12 


Dye In J ected at Fonda 
Mav 8, 1967 1400 hours 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
i 


4 


z 
o 
:3 
a; 
a:: 
w 
CL 
UJ 
t;: 
'it 

 
z 
g 

 2 
f- 
6J 
u 
z 
o 
u 


z 
g 
g I Lock No. 111 

 l-oO
I_ I 

 2 1?010-
 

 1 0 t o
 
6 0 ! t- I 0 0 

' /1--[-. i--- \---0- 
uo JJ I i I I I 


0_ 
1 -- --, 
I I ........ ":- :-. 


2200 
JULY 27, 1966 


0200 


1000 


1400 


2200 


0200 


0600 


1000 
JULY 29.1966 


1400 


1800 


0600 


JULY 28. 1966 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 39 - 


1800 


1800 



I 
is I 
>= I 
r aJ/ 
oo_
o 
2000 2400 
JULY 27, 1966 


z 
Q 
:::J 0.3 
CJ 
a: 
w 
CL 
CfJ 
t;: 
g: 

 0.2 
z 
Q 
g I 
d} 
u 
is Qt 0 
U aa LI 
1800 1900 


z 
o 
j 
CJ 
a: 
w 

 2 
t;: 
g: 

 
z 
o 

 t 
..... 
d} 
u 
z 
o 
u 


z 

 
CJ 
a: 
w 
CL 
CfJ 2 
t;: 
g: 



 


04 


o 
2000 


I I 
-r_a_
 
I r I 


I 
0600 
MAY 10, 1967 


b 


2200 
MAY 9 1967 


2400 0200 


0400 


1000 


Lock No 10 


Dye Injected at Lock No 11 
July 26 1966 1230 hours 
I 


0400 


I 
------ ...... 
 
0400 0800 1200 1600 
JULY 29,1966 


0800 1200 1600 
JULY 28,1966 


2000 


2400 


Lock No 10 


Dye IIlJected at Lock No 11 
May 9 1967 1350 hours 


1 -- 0 


2000 


2100 
MAY 9, 1967 


2200 


2400 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 40 - 



z 
3 
c:; 
a:: 
LlJ 
CL 1.0 
Cf) 

 

 

 
z 
o 
;::: 0.5 

 
ijJ 
U 
Z 
o 
U 


z 
o 
::J 
c:; 
a:: 
LlJ 
CL 
Cf) 

 

 

. 
Z 
o 
f- 

 
f- 
iE 
u 
z 
o 
u 


cr¥\ 
\:OCk I NO . 9 
L O / ocI----"-
 
o 0'" 
o 


o 


o 


00 
0800 


0800 1200 1600 
JULY 28, 1966 


2000 


2400 0400 
JULY29,1966 


1200 1600 2000 
JULY 27.1966 


2400 


0400 


1.5 


Lock NO.9 


Dye Injected at Lock No. 10 
Ma y 18. 1967 1445 hours 


o 


0400 0600 
MAY 19. 1967 


0800 


1000 


4 


Lock No 


Dye Injected at Lock No.9 
Jul y 25 1966 1230 hours 


O
OO 
00 -Op
 0 
I 0 0 
1 \
 
,0 0 
g \ 
) oO'R o 
000 0 
 
/ 0 '1>0
 
.0 0 0 0 _ 
,0 u 
00,,0 
00 09'" 0 
OO
 
1800 
JULY 26. 1966 


z 
o 
j 
c:; 
a:: 
LlJ 
CL 
Cf) 

 

 



 


z 
o 
;::: 

 
f- 
ijJ 
U 
Z 
o 
U 


o 


0600 


1800 
JULY 29, 1966 


0600 


1800 


0600 


1800 


JULY 27, 1966 


JULY 28, 1966 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 41 



2.0 
Peak No. 1 Dye Injected at Lock NO.9 
May 18, 1967 1415 hours 
Lock NO.8 Peak No. 2 Dye probably Injected at Lock No. 10 
z 
0 May 18, 1967 1445 hour5 
:3 1.5 
a; 
a: 

 
Cf) 

 Lock NO.8 
g: 

kv 

 1,0 
z' 
0 
i=. 

 
f- 
iE 0 
u o_J 
Z 0,5 
0 
U 
0 
I 
2000 2400 0200 0400 0600 0800 1000 
MAY19 1967 


20 


Route 50 


Dye Injected at Lock No.8 
July 18,1966 1100 hours 


16 



\ 
-7- 0 0, 
o \ 


z 
g 
....J 
....J 
a; 
a: 
w 
Q. 12 
Cf) 
f- 
a: 
g: 

 


o 


z 
o 
S 8 
f- 
iE 
u 
z 
o 
u 


4 


1900 
JULY 18,1966 


2400 


0500 


1000 1500 
JULY 19, 1966 


2000 


0100 


Appendix A,--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 42 - 



0 
0 

 
'" 
o 
 
Z 0 
-"".J::. 
gg 0 
-'M 2 


 
2
 [\j 


 0 
(lJ co 
>-::';; 
0 0 
0 
[\j 
r-- 
<D 
0 
 
0 00- 
2 >- 
« 
::';; 
>- 0 
" 0 
co 
 
U 
(lJ 
C 
(lJ 
.J::. 
U 0 
Cf) 

 
Co 

 
(lJ 
" -0 
0 
a: 10 
I/') gg 
NOl1118 tl3d Sltl'v'd NI 'NOI1'v'tllN3JNOJ 


T I I I , I
 
00", !
 
.
 
0" 
Z
 
-""0 
Uo 
-
:: 
CO<D 
,,<D 


. 0 
(lJ00 r 
c
 
- >- 
(lJ- 0 
>-" I 
0' 0 0 
I 0 
Y 
 
i- 
t 
f 
0 
7 0 0 

 
0 
f- (0 0 - 
0 
&--8 
\0 
 
0 
f- 0 - 
0 
0 0 
1_ 0 
(\I 
0 
- I - 
0 
0 
I 
 
I- - 
I 0 
0 
01 - 
0 
- 
 - 
- VOo 
0/ 
0(- 
0 
- >- J' 
(lJ 
u... 

 r:' 

 e-- 
:> 0 
/1,0 

 .," - 
0"6.. 
 
I 
y'O
 0 
___ 0" 
o--.!--o
o_ 
-°----r---lo 0 

 ! - 

 :
 
I I I I I r 
0 


I/') 



 


NOl1118 tl3d Sltl'v'd NI NOI1'v'tllN3JNOJ 


- 43 


o 
o 


<D 
<D 
CJ'> 


r-- 
N 
>- 
-' 

 


<D 
<D 
CJ'> 



 
>- 
-' 

 



 
a; 


Q) 
>- 
-0 
4- 
o 
C 
o 


L!) 
N 
>- 
-' 

 


VI 
"- 
Q) 
0- 
VI 


i8 
G> 


-0 
-0 
C 
10 
C 
o 


0..,. 
(\IN 
>- 
-' 

 



 
10 


o 
o 

 
[\j 


"- 
10 
> 
Q) 
E 
l- 
I 
I 


<D 
<D 
CJ'> 


. 

 
X 
-0 
C 
Q) 
0- 
0- 

 


o 
OM 

 N 
>- 
-' 

 


o 
o 

 


<D 
<D 
CJ'> 


o 
ON 
[\jN 
>- 
-' 

 


o 
o 

 


<D 
<D 
CJ'> 


N 
>- 
-' 

 
o , 
o 
(\I 



z 
z-g 
gj 
f-- 
«'" 
a: a: 
!z
1 
WU) 
Uf- 
za: 
0« 
U (L 

 


Crescent Dam 


o 
o ro 
ro 
 
(J; ill 

 
 19 
ill c.9 
 Dye Injected at Lock No.7 

 ] I 0_ J 
 UIY 18, 1966 1430llours 

 o
_o 0 
 -0....00 0 
2f! - -0 ....0-0--0-0- 0 - 0 -0-0 0....;;;;;;---- 
oU) 0 0 
 
00 0 0 
00 
o 


o 


o 



 


o 
1200 1800 2400 
JULY 22,1966 


2400 


JULY 25, 1966 


JULY 26, 1966 


2,0 
Crescent Dam Peak NO.2 Dye probably Inlected at Lock No. 
z May 8, 1967 1300 hours 
0 1.5 
::J 
a; 
a: 
w Crescent Dam 
(L 
U) 
b:: 
;:;: 

 1.0 
z- 
0 
i= 

 
f- 
m 
U 0.5 
z 
0 
u 
0 
0400 0800 1200 1600 0400 0800 /200 2000 
MAY 9, 1967 MAY 10,1967 


Appendix A.--Time variation and dispersion of dye. 


- 44 - 



EXPLANATION 


: 1\ , 
o 10 20 30 
MOHAWK RIVER AT CANAL GATE NO.6 NEAR ROME 


,II 


Q = 67.2 cfs 
A = 87.0 sq ft 
Ii =- 0.77 fps 


Q::: Discharge 
A::: Area 
Ii::: Velocity 


: 
, ' 
o 10 20 30 40 
MOHAWK RIVER NEAR ORISKANY 


5 0 


6 0 


-:[ 
70 80 


Q = 263 cfs 
A ::: 155 sq ft 
ij ::: 1 .70 fps 


:I " , , 
o 10 20 30 40 
QRISKANY CREEK AT ORISKANY 



 Q'129.801, 

 ::: 95.8 sq ft 
v = 1.36 fps 
50 60 70 



, 
o 10 20 30 40 
MOHAWK RIVER NEAR WHITESBORO 


,
 [ 
60 70 80 90 


Q= 370 cfs 
A::: 280 sq ft 
Ii::: 1.32 fps 


I 
50 


f- 
W 
W 
I...L. 
Z 


T
.
 [ 
o 10 20 30 40 
SAUQUOIT CREEK AT WHITESBORO 


Q= 55.7 cfs 
A::: 26.0 sq ft 
Ii = 2.14 fps 


I 
f- 
a... 
w 
o 


o 


Q ::: 438 cfs 
A::: 949 sq ft 
v::: 0.46 fps 


5 


100 110 


to 


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
MOHAWK RIVER AT NORTH-SOUTH ARTERIAL, UTICA 


80 


90 


o 


5 


10 


15 


20 
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 
MOHAWK RIVER AT lElAND AVENUE, UTICA 


70 


80 


90 


100 110 


120 


130 


140 


DISTANCE FROM LEFT BANK, IN FEET 


Appendix B.--Cross sections and hydraulic properties. 


- 45 - 


Q::: 695 cfs 
A ::: 1690 sq ft 
ii ::: 0.41 fps 


150 


160 


170 



: -l 
10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
MOHAWK RIVER AT SCHUYLER (DYKE ROAD) 


o 


5 


10 


15 
o 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


MOHAWK RIVER NEAR FRANKFORT (SUSPENSION BRIDGE) 


:
: r,
, 80 
0... 

 MOHAWK RIVER- CANAL AT FRANKFORT 


............ 


120 


, j
 
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 
MOHAWK RIVER AT WASHINGTON STREET, HERKIMER 



 
110 120 130 


f OQ05 d, 
, A" 56"q ft 
ii = 1 .25 fps 
140 


I 
80 


= 
90 


I 
100 


o ::: 758 cfs 
A =631 sq ft 
ii ::: 1 .20 fps 


70 


80 


110 


120 


90 


100 



, 


ZJ O:::879cfS 
A = 3120 'q ft 
=---- V" 0.28 fp, 
1 6 0 200 240 



 
, 
70 


I 
'
 
o 50 100 
MOHAWK RIVER AT LOCK NO. 18 NEAR HERKIMER 


I 
80 



 f 0=400'" 
, _ ,
 ,,380 ,q ft 
v - 1.31 fps 
90 100 110 


----;- 


, :J 
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 
MOHAWK RIVER AT SOUTH ANN STREET. LITTLE FALLS 


I
 
150 200 


,-: 


[ Q" 1160 cj, 
A= 1490 sq ft 
V = 0.78 fps 
300 


r 
250 


t Q= 1310 ," 
A= 388 sq ft 
ii = 3.88 fps 
80 


DISTANCE FROM LEFT BANK, I N FEET 


Appendix B.--Cross sections and hydraulic properties. 


- 46 - 



} , , --: , 
o 10 20 30 40 50 
CAROGA CREEK AT PALATINE CHURCH 


[ 0= 162 ,j, 
A=116sqft 
V = 1.40 fps 
70 


O : J \ u . . _ _ I [ 



52s

t 
. 
 . ,=0.53fp' 
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 
CANAJOHARIE CREEK AT CANAJOHARIE 


, 
100 


, 
150 


,: 
200 


L [ 0=1
Od' 

 =4300 'q ft 
v = 0.28 fps 
, 
250 300 



: 
 
o 50 
MOHAWK RIVER AT FORT PLAIN 



 
LU 
LU 
U. 
Z 


:r: 
f- 
a... 
LU 
o 


o 


Q = 84.7 cfs 
A = 52.4 sq ft 
V = 1 .62 fps 


2 


3 
o 10 20 
CA Y ADUTT A CREEK AT FONDA 


30 


40 



 :c
 
MOHAWK RIVER-CANAL AT FONDA 


=Z[ 0=B03d, 
. 
 = 4660 'q ft 
v = 0.17 fps 
280 320 360 400 


: J
 
l 
4 0 10 20 30 40 50 
NORTH CHUCTANUNDA CREEK AT GROVE STREET, AMSTERDAM 
DISTANCE FROM LEFT BANK, IN FEET - 


Q= 101 cfs 
A = 111 sq ft 
V = 0.91 fps 


Appendix B.--Cross sections and hydraulic properties. 


- 47 - 




 ,,
/ 
o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 
MOHAWK RIVER-CANAL AT AMSTERDAM 


f Q. 974 q, 
, A' 5110 'q h 
it=0.19fps 
440 


0 Q = 968 cfs 
A = 5660 sq ft 
it = 0.17 fps 
10 
f- 20 
LU 
LU 
u.. 

 
::c- 30 
f- 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 
0... MOHAWK RIVER-CANAL AT ROTTERDAM JUNCTION 
LU 
£:) 
0 Q = 1880 cfs 
A = 6526 sq ft 
iJ = 0.28 fps 
10 
20 
30 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 
MOHAWK RIVER-CANAL AT ROUTE 50, SCHENECTADY 
DISTANCE FROM LEFT BANK, IN FEET 


Appendix B.--Cross sections and hydrau1ic properties. 


- 48 -